Name of the country:
Islamic Republic of Iran
Independence, Freedom, Islamic Republic
35 41 N 51 25 E
Great Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Khamenei
Dr. Hassan Rohani
International Tel code:
oil, carpet, fruits, dry fruits (pistachios, raisins, and dates), leather, caviar, petrochemical products, apparels and dresses, foodstuffs.
Imports: machineries, industrial metals, medicines, chemical derivatives.
Industries: oil, petrochemical, textile, cement and other materials for building construction, food derivatives (especially refining sugar and extracting edible oil),
Agriculture: wheat, rice, grains, fruits, oily seeds such as pistachios, almond, walnut, cotton.
Transportation: 7286 kilometers of railways and 158000 kilometers of roads.
Pipelines: oil derivatives 3900 kilometer, natural gas 4550 kilometer.
Ports: Abadan, Ahwaz, Shahid Beheshti port, Abbas port, Anzali port, Bushehr port, Imam Khomeini port, Mahshahr port, Turkman port, Khoramshahr, Noshahr.
Iran is a county in southwest Asia, a country of mountains and deserts. Eastern Iran is dominated by a high plateau, with large salt flats and vast sand deserts. The plateau is surrounded by even higher mountains, including the Zagros to the west and the Elburz to the north. Its neighbors are Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, and Armenia in the north, Afghanistan, and Pakistan in the east, and, and Turkey and Iraq in the west. Tehran is the capital, the country’s largest city and the political, cultural, commercial and industrial center of the nation. Iran holds an important position in international energy security and world economy as a result of its large reserves of petroleum and natural gas.
The eastern and central basins are arid, with less than 200 mm (7.9 in) of rain and have occasional deserts. Average summer temperatures exceed 38 °C (100.4 °F). The coastal plains of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in southern Iran have mild winters and very humid and hot summers. The annual precipitation ranges from 135 to 355 mm (5.3 to 14.0 in).
Recent archaeological studies indicate that as early as 10,000 BC, people lived on the southern shores of the Caspian, one of the few regions of the world which according to scientists escaped the Ice Age. They were probably the first men in the history of mankind to engage in agriculture and animal husbandry.
Language and literature
Official language (of Iran) is Persian. Persian serves as a lingua franca in Iran and most publications and broadcastings are in this language.
Besides Persian, there are many publications and broadcastings in other relatively popular languages of Iran such as Azeri, Kurdish and even in less popular ones such as Arabic and Armenian. Many languages have originated in Iran, but Persian is the most used language. Persian belongs to the Iranian branch of the Indo-European family of languages. The oldest records in Old Persian date to the Achaemenes Empire and examples of Old Persian have been found in present-day Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Egypt. Persian is spoken today primarily in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, but historically, was a more widely understood language in an area ranging from the Middle East to India, it had a significant population of speakers in other Persian Gulf countries, as well as large communities around the World.
Persian, until recent centuries, was culturally and historically one of the most prominent languages of the Middle East and regions beyond. For example, it was an important language during the reign of the Moguls in India, where knowledge of Persian was cultivated and encouraged; its use in the India courts of Moguls ended in 1837, due to being banned by officials of the East Indian Company (British Colonialism). The reign of Moguls in India ended in 1837, banned by officials of the East Indian Company (British Colonialism).
Persian scholars were prominent in both Turkish and Indian courts during the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries, in the field of composing dictionaries and grammatical books. A Persian-Indian vernacular was developed, and many colonial British officers learned their Persian from Indian scribes.
The name of the modern Persian language is sometimes referred to as Farsi in English texts.
Iranian official calendar, regulate according to Solar year & Iranian months. 21st of March equals 1st of Farvardin, which is the beginning of the Iranian New Year. Also, in Iran, the Lunar calendar is officially in use. A Lunar year is 10 days less than a Solar year, so days of performing religious rites, that adjust according to the Lunar calendar each year, is different from the next and former years. Therefore it is recommendable for tourists to arrange their traveling time with the related agency having this fact in mind. Especially in Ramadan month that Muslim Iranians are fasting, and in Muharram, when they are mournful, could affect your traveling experience. These situations have an influence on daily activities and some days in these two months are public holidays. Fridays are official holidays as they are considered to be the weekends.
Iranian culture has long been a predominant culture in the Middle East and Central Asia, with Persian considered to be the language of intellectuals during much of the 2nd millennium, and the language of religion and the populace before that. The Sassanid influence continued well into the Islamic world. Much of what later became known as Islamic learning, such as philology, literature, jurisprudence, philosophy, medicine, architecture and the sciences were based on some of the practices taken from the Sassanid Persians to the broader Muslim world.
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